One of the most common pathologies of the bladder is cystitis – inflammation of the bladder mucosa, which affects about 35% of women aged 20 to 45 years. The disease is relatively rare in men, which is explained by the different anatomical structure of the female and male ureters: the female urethra is much shorter and wider, so the infection easily ascends to the bladder. In addition, a woman’s anal hole and the entrance to the vagina are close to each other, so infection from the anal hole into the vagina is also easily accessible. Acute (uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection) and chronic (complicated urinary tract infection) forms of the disease are known. The second form of cystitis is quite common with pyelonephritis.
The main factors causing the disease
The disease is often provoked:
1. Inflammatory diseases and hormonal disorders of gynecological profile;
2. Contraception with spermicides;
3. Active sex life;
4. It is known as Newlywed cystitis, which is the result of the urethra microflora entering the female body, which is unusual for her at the beginning of sexual life.
The cause of inflammation is mostly gram-negative enterobacteriaceae: intestinal sticks, Klebsiella and others. The pathology can also be caused by streptococci, staphylococci and enterococci. In the acute uncomplicated form of the disease, the cause is usually one, while in the complicated form it is several.
Cystitis in men
Cystitis is quite rare in men and predominantly develops against the background of exacerbation of chronic prostatitis. In this case, the treatment of the inflammatory process of the present gland also leads to the disappearance of the symptoms characteristic of cystitis, so special intervention is not considered necessary.
How to diagnose cystitis
The symptoms characteristic of the disease in the acute form last for about a week. These include urinary discomfort, lower abdominal pain, burning and tingling sensation when urinating, small bowel movements, frequent urination and his constant urge, however, the urine is dark and often contains blood components. These symptoms are accompanied by a deterioration of the general condition, a change in mood. An increase in body temperature is expected within 2-3 days, especially if the process is complicated by poelonephritis. In the chronic form, the disease is characterized by an individual course: some have seizures once a week, some – once a month, and some – the disease reminds itself once a year. The frequency of recurrence of attacks is determined by several factors:
1. Decreased general resistance of the organism, immunity;
2. The effect of harmful factors on the body, for example, cold;
3. Human attitude towards the problem. If we consult a specialist after the first attack and do not start self-medication, the likelihood of recurrence of attacks decreases after timely administration of adequate therapy. In other cases, improper self-medication becomes the most common cause of increased seizures.
Treatment begins after diagnosis
Often, clinical signs are enough to start treatment. The main task of treatment is not only to remove the pain syndrome and discomfort, but also to expel the pathogen from the body and prevent recurrent inflammation. Complex treatment of acute cystitis includes:
- Antimicrobial therapy
- Increased fluid intake – not less than 2 liters per day
- To refuse sex for a week
- Therapeutic diet – the removal of products and beverages from the diet that help irritate the bladder
- Symptomatic therapy – analgesics, antispasmodics
- Treatment of hormonal disorders
- It is necessary to correct sexual and hygienic factors, to increase immunity
Frequent errors in treatment
- Most often, patients are mistaken when they start taking antibacterial drugs at the first detection of cystitis, such as 5-Nok, Palin, nitroxoline and others.
Why? – Usually, the disease-causing bacteria show a slight sensitivity to these drugs, so by taking them, the patient contributes to the transition to a chronic form of the disease.
- Local procedures are not always justified, especially bladder steam baths. Sometimes such “treatment” even hinders recovery.
- There is another extreme – you often hear that “you can not do cystitis with antibiotics.” It is at this time that nutritional supplements and so-called Drinking complex immunosuppressive biopreparations, which is also ineffective and promotes the transition to a chronic form of the disease.
- Recently, some manufacturers offer patients different types of devices, the radiation of which seems to help cure cystitis. Do not be fooled by such things as the effectiveness and safety of these types of tools have not yet been proven.
How to protect yourself
There are a few simple rules that can help women who are positive about the disease protect themselves:
- Avoid freezing. Do not sit on a cold stone, on the ground, do not swim in cold water.
- Minimize the intake of bitter, sour, fried, salty and spicy foods and alcohol.
- Take up to 2 liters of fluid a day.
- Do not neglect gynecological and other inflammatory diseases.
- Follow the rules of hygiene after defecation.
- In case of menstrual bleeding it is advisable to use diapers and not tampons.
- If you suspect a disease, consult a specialist immediately, because a few days of therapy is enough to treat acute cystitis, while the chronic form is much more difficult to treat.
See also: Causes and treatment of male infertility