Infertility is a very topical medical and social problem. About 15% of couples in the world face it.
Because the female reproductive system is more complex than the male, the cause of infertility in couples is often certain disorders in the female body. At such times they talk about female infertility. It can be related to various disorders and diseases in a woman’s body.
Types of female infertility (classification according to previous pregnancies)
This is a condition where a woman living an active sex life has never gotten pregnant. Primary infertility is often associated with congenital structural or functional disorders of the female genital tract, caused by hereditary factors, more often by changes in the number or structure of chromosomes.
It is also called acquired. It is associated with pathological changes in the female body – infections, endocrine shifts, somatic pathologies, psychogenic disorders, exposure to harmful environmental factors and more.
Causes of female infertility (classification according to disorders of the reproductive system)
1. Infertility of the tubes
One of the causes of female infertility is the obstruction of the fallopian tubes. Blockage (blockage) of the fallopian tubes prevents the germ cells from moving. Blockage of the fallopian tubes (as it is often called) is often caused by healing inside them (inside the lumen) or outside. The reason for the development of the latter, in turn, may be inflammatory diseases of the genital system, abortions, difficult childbirth or trauma, various gynecological surgeries.
2. Endocrine infertility
One of the most common causes of female infertility is endocrine disorders. At this time, the process of maturation of eggs in the female body is disrupted, therefore, fertilization is not possible. In medical terminology, ovulation does not occur, which is why pregnancy cannot occur. The cause is hormonal changes caused by dysfunction of the endocrine glands (ovaries, adrenal and thyroid glands). The so-called One of the most common causes of endocrine infertility is polycystic ovaries (multiple cysts filled with fluid in the ovaries, the same immature follicles that contain dead eggs). Ovulation does not occur at this time against the background of an excess of androgens (male sex hormones).
3. Infertility caused by gynecological diseases
Infertility is often caused by various gynecological pathologies, therefore, impaired fertility is restored after the disease is cured. Diagnosis of patients reveals that the cause of female infertility is most often endometriosis. This pathology is characterized by the proliferation of cells from the endometrium (inner layer of the uterus) to other organs, such as the ovaries, the muscular layer of the uterus (myometrium), the fallopian tubes, and the abdominal cavity. Infertility can also be caused by pathologies of the cervix, in particular, erosion, dysplasia, cervicitis (inflammation), sexually transmitted infections, and so on. Sh. During these pathologies, the amount and structure of mucus produced in the cervix is violated. As a result of the hardening-reduction of mucus, the sperm can not move, can not reach the fallopian tubes to fertilize the eggs.
4. Early menopause
Infertility is caused by premature loss of ovarian function, or early menopause. Normally, the age of menopause in women is 50-55 years, although for some women the reserve of follicles (and therefore eggs), for unknown reasons, expires much earlier, menstruation is interrupted by the age of 40-45 or even earlier. In many cases, this condition can be overcome with hormonal treatment.
5. Immunological infertility
One of the least studied causes of female infertility is the so-called cervical (or cervical) mucus. The presence of antisperm antibodies that destroy sperm. At such times, sperm are often injected directly into the uterine cavity to prevent them from coming into contact with the cervical mucus.
6. Psychological infertility
The cause of female infertility is not always due to the physical condition of the reproductive system. Stressful situations, anxiety, alarm, negative emotions also reduce the likelihood of conception, often even completely eliminating it until a woman’s mental state is normalized.
7. Absolute, genetic infertility
The cause of infertility in women of reproductive age is sometimes gross genetic abnormalities: the absence of the uterus, ovaries or fallopian tubes. If infertility (usually primary) is caused by genetic causes, it is usually characterized by complete immaturity of the egg. For example, in Turner syndrome, when girls are born with underdeveloped ovaries, or even with agenesis (complete absence of ovaries) or their acute underdevelopment (gonadal dysgenesis syndrome).
8. Infertility of idiopathic (unknown origin)
Sometimes the cause of infertility can not be determined in either women or men. No specific pathology of the genital system can be detected, although pregnancy still does not develop. In this case, they talk about infertility, or infertility of unknown origin. 25% of infertility cases, it turns out, are of this form. Because the cause of infertility can not be determined, therefore, rational treatment planning is difficult and practically impossible.