Disease Description Urinary tract stones are one of the most common causes of human hospitalization. Half of the patients who came to the doctor for urological care have urolithiasis. Primary stones of the urinary tract are formed by the secretion of large amounts of salts similar to uric acid and cystine salts. For example, the formation of stones during hyperparathyroidism promotes the release of a lot of calcium and phosphorus. E. წ. Secondary stones develop in the presence of foreign bodies, during obstruction and reflux, as well as – against the background of prolonged bed rest, the interaction of microorganisms and urea is followed by the development of ammonium-magnesium-phosphate stones in the urinary tract.
In 75 cases out of ace, calcium oxalate stones are found, ammonium-magnesium-phosphate – in 15%, the share of uric acid stones is 8%, and stones of cystine origin are the most rare and their share does not exceed 1%. Urinary tract disease is found in all ages, from childhood to old age. Treatment of this disease requires extensive knowledge of modern diagnostics, methods of rational treatment of urinary tract disease and modern principles of stone removal.
The main cause of urinary tract disease is congenital – it is a disorder of metabolism, which is followed by the formation of insoluble salts. There are also frequent cases when a person has a congenital predisposition to urinary tract disease, but if there are no contributing factors, the disease does not develop. These factors are:
- Climatic factor: The inhabitants of the hot climate zone sweat much more than the middle zone. As a result, the concentration of some salts in the body increases and stones may begin to form.
- Geographical factor: important water composition (hard water, high in calcium salts, promotes the formation of urolithiasis), food (bitter and acidic foods increase the acidity of the urine and in this case stones are formed much more easily). Lack of ultraviolet rays and vitamins also lead to the formation of stones, as well as injuries and bone diseases – osteomyelitis, osteoporosis.
- Chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract: chronic gastritis, colitis, peptic ulcer disease.
- Strong dehydration of the body, which can develop during poisoning or infectious disease.
- Diseases of the kidneys and urogenital system – pyelonephritis, hydronephrosis, nephroptosis, cystitis, prostate adenoma, prostatitis and others.
Symptoms of urinary tract disease
The clinical picture of urinary tract disease depends on the shape, size, quantity and localization of the concretions. The leading symptoms are pain and the presence of blood in the urine. The pain starts in the lumbar or abdominal area, may be severe or dull, periodic or constant. Urinary stones cause severe attacks of pain (renal colic) in the area of the uterus, genitals and thighs with irradiation (transmission). Stones in the bladder may cause pain in the area of the bladder. Hematuria (blood in the urine) occurs in most people with urinary tract disease. Gets stronger while walking. Severe pain is not the only trouble – urinary tract disease rarely goes away without complications. Exacerbation of chronic pyelonephritis is relatively common. Hydronephrosis develops due to impaired urinary excretion, which dramatically impairs renal function. Kidney failure is considered to be the most dangerous complication. Anatomical and functional changes caused by prolonged presence of stones in the kidneys result in renal arterial hypertension (increase in blood pressure). A symptom of urinary tract disease, a sharp, unreasonable need to urinate, manifests itself during walking, physical activity, fluctuations. During urination, there is a symptom of “failure” – suddenly the flow of urine stops, but the patient feels that the bladder is not completely empty. The urination process resumes only after the body condition changes. In severe cases, when the stone is too large, the patient can urinate only while lying down.
This relatively common disease is most common in men, children, and the elderly. Stones in the bladder either come from the kidneys or appear in it. They are caused by factors that make it difficult to excrete urine, including prostate adenoma or cancer, urinary tract stricture, bladder diverticulum, tumor, trauma, foreign body. Phimosis, balanoposthitis, narrowing of the outer hole often contribute to the formation of stones in the bladder in children. Bladder stones come in a variety of shapes, sizes and weights. It can be both singular and plural. The chemical composition, consistency and color are similar to those of kidney stones.
See also: Protein in urine